Sunday, August 23, 2020
Governmental policy regarding minorities in society misc3 papers Governmental policy regarding minorities in society is portrayed as the term implied finding a way to kill the then across the board practices of racial, strict, and ethnic separation. The historical backdrop of governmental policy regarding minorities in society begins quite a while before this definition was expressed during the mid 1960's. It begins back to the Declaration of Independence where it expresses all men are made equivalent. It pushes toward the Emancipation Proclamation, the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth Amendments which included the liberating of slaves, canceling bondage, gave citizenship on all people conceived in the United States, and ensuring casting a ballot rights to all residents. There were additionally many legal disputes that helped move forward into governmental policy regarding minorities in society. A couple of models would be Buchanan v. Warley, Plessy v. Ferguson, and Brown v. Leading body of Education. The last legal dispute was a genuine fire storm over governmental policy regarding minorities in society, which decided that all neighborhood, state, and bureaucratic laws that implemented isolation in training was striked down. President John F. Kennedy initially utilized the expression Governmental policy regarding minorities in society when he gave Executive Order 10952. This request made the Equal Opportunity Commission or the EEOC and contractual workers on ventures financed with government assets to make positive move to guarantee that candidates are utilized, insect representatives are treated during their work regardless of race, statement of faith, shading, or national starting point. President Kennedy likewise pushed for more enactment however was not alive to see it experience. Continuing Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson assumed control over the battle and pushed for the death of Civil Rights Act of 1964, which banned separation in the assortment of private and open settings. It included forbidding segregation in private offices, banned separation in governmentally subsidized projects, and precluded segregation by both private and open businesses, etc. Still under Johnson's influence, the Executive Order 11246, put the duty regarding a... <!
Friday, August 21, 2020
Question: Examine about the Creating and Developing Innovations. Answer: Presentation: Advancement is the procedure of creation, osmosis, selection and misuse of a worth included novel assistance in the social and financial circles, for example, extension or reestablishment of the market or the item, improvement of the new creation procedure or restoration of the new administration framework. The advancement procedure is the way toward finding, making and building up the thought, refining the development thought into the valuable structure and increase benefit from them. This report will examine the development procedure in the Fair arrangement organization. The Fair arrangement organization is the organization that fabricates the individual consideration items, both for people. The organization needs to develop its item by giving them glance through the alluring bundling on the grounds that the appealing bundling can support to draw in an ever increasing number of clients towards the item and thus an expansion in the offer of the item (Franke, Keinz and Klausberger, 2013). This development will bolster the organization in having the upper hand over the other same kind of the items. Be that as it may, the organization realizes that there is a need of the correct advancement procedure and its appropriate execution and the board to guarantee the accomplishment of the development. Making and Developing Innovations: The advancement procedure represents various difficulties (Bguin, 2007). On the off chance that the one stage of the advancement procedure is frail, or if the organization doesn't follow a fundamental procedure for the execution of the imaginative thought, the accomplishment of the development thought will be dubious. In any case, in the event that the organization follows the correct way of the best possible development process, at that point the advantages of the advancement can be accomplished. In the advancement procedure, the administrator of the organization assumes an essential job in the development procedure. In the executives, Policy and Practice of the development, following are where the chief can help the advancement procedure. There is a need that chief focuses on the subtleties of the activity of the undertaking of the development continually. Directors ought to have the consistent consideration that the undertaking of the development is functioning admirably or not and have facilitated to assume the liability of the advancement task; the individual in question ought to give a learning environment to the workers with the goal that they can investigate themselves and advance new thoughts (J Haron, 2016). The director ought to have more clear correspondence with the workers in the choice and assessment of the inventive thought. There ought to be arrangement for the obvious conventions that will support the two representatives and supervisor to concentrate on the powerful models for the advancement. The director should quickly react to the constituents that are outside and give moment feelings to the experimentation. The productive and commendable inquiries backing to make this procedure proficient and viable (Fruehauf, Seeger and Topaly, 2005). The most and significant thing that must in light of the supervisor is the craving and need of the client during the development procedure. The utilization of the imaginative innovation that is registering foundation and information digging is important for the thought of the client discernment and want. Thus, the accomplishment of the advancement procedure for the most part relies upon the viable job of the administrator. Thus, the duty of the chief of the Fair Deal Company is extremely high in the advancement procedure. In the previously mentioned territory, the administrator of the Fair Deal Company should try sincerely and incapable way for the achievement of the advancement procedure. For the correct usage and the board of the advancement procedure, the organization needs to follow the five stages of the development procedure that are as per the following. 1. Age and preparation of the imaginative thought 2. Backing of the imaginative thought and its screening 3. Experimentation 4. Commercialization 5. Dissemination of the creative thought and its execution Age and preparation of the creative thought This progression includes the age of the new thoughts and development of the thought in the other division or outside the association. Development thought is made for the improvement of a more seasoned thought or the current thought. For instance, the Apple Company advanced the possibility of the assembling the iPod after the three years of MP3 player presentation that has the ability of 1000 tunes (Klein and Dologite, 2000). The other model is the development of the scotch tape was the spic and span advancement. There is additionally a Richard Drews story; he is the school dropout understudy that saw the requirement for the exceptional sort of tapes that didn't demolish the vehicles paint. He confronted various obstacles in finishing his creation, however his solid will and hard working attitude constrained the organization to give 15% of their working time to spend in the development procedure and they prevail with regards to assembling that kind of tapes. Thus, the reasonable arra ngement organization has two portable the possibility of development in the bundling and gives the opportunity to the representatives to spend on the more current thoughts for the appealing kind of bundling. How they can build up an appealing bundling, what sort of compartment ought to be utilized, what kind of material for bundling, etc? As indicated by the board, Policy and Practices of the development procedure, the administrator of the organization has a significant job in the advancement procedure (Paulus and Brown, 2007). Supervisor of the Fair Deal Company should concentrate on the development procedure as the over-requirement on the representatives of the organization can demand the worker leave the organization for the steady occupation or carelessness or lesser goal to the advancement procedure by the worker will diminish the thought age and the earnestness of the creative thought. Support of the creative thought and its screening When the organization utilizes the workers for the making of the new thought of the advancement, various thoughts were improved by the representatives. Not all the imaginative thoughts can be executed by the organization, so the organization needs to screen out the best thought that is powerful and with the spending plan of the organization (Perttula and Sipil, 2007). For this, the organization needs to follow the second step of the development procedure support and screening. In this progression, the organization needs to do the assessment of the inventive thoughts and estimation of the key potential and advantages of the development thoughts. Refinement is the best preferred position of the joint methodology of support and screening. On the off chance that a thought has a conversation, potential and contentions backing to upgrade it. The investigation of the board, Policy and Practices of the advancement depicts that how this progression build up a development thought for the upper administration that can be a require a different methodology (Igartua and Albors, 2011). Since the workers that have produced the advancement thought don't have what it takes to advocate it, the chief is the notable individual that encourages bolsters and supports the development thought generator. The Fair arrangement organization should assemble a culture of the hearty that can create through the accompanying practices. The main practice is to give the satisfactory roads to have criticism and support. The subsequent practice is that the organization ought to comprehend the obstacles or issues looked by the representative during advancement of a viable thought. The third one practice is the organization has the convention that has straightforward screening and assessment. Experimentation In the progression of experimentation, an imaginative thought is tried based on convention or through the pilot test. The administration Policy and Practices of the development depict that experimentation is simply trying the legitimacy and negative marks of the advancement thought; it likewise tried on the premise manageability of the organization at a specific time. Some advancement thought might be past the limit of the association right now or might be in front of the companys time. These development thoughts ought to be spared in the advancement journal or a library for the eventual fate of the organization (Acemoglu, Bimpikis and Ozdaglar, 2011). Experimentation should be possible persistently or in the parts since advocates and the individual who are going to screen the thought reexamine the creative thought. Now and again, experimentation prompts the more current thought on account of the accumulated data and assessing the chance of the first thought. In this procedure or ven ture of experimentation, time is essential (Vetter, 2014). The representatives ought to be given suitable time to complete the correct experimentation. As in this progression, assessment and refinement of the thought happen the enough time is required for the experimentation. The greater part of the organizations explore different avenues regarding the new administrations and item. For instance, in 2007 the amazon explores its administration of the basic food item conveyance in the Seattle Suburbs, after the accomplishment of this trial, the Amazon extended its administration in different nations additionally (Vetter, 2014). The Fair Deal Company ought to do the experimentation with a couple of the items that the organization should change the bundling of the a couple of items and afterward watch the accomplishment of their bundling over the deal. On the off chance that the offer of this two enhanced item is expanded because of the appealing bundling, at that point the remainder of the item ought to likewise be bundled in alluring bundling. On the off chance that this doesn't occur, at that point the organization pursues for the new bundling (Tricou, 2009). Commercialization Once, the inventive thought is refined and tested, it could be utilized to focus on the crowd and to meet the prerequisites of the clients. The point of the commercialization is to make the market estimation of the development thought by concentrating on the potential effect of the thought. This progression includes the engaging of the plan to the crowd that is the bundling of a creative thought with different thoughts, explanation of how and when the development thought is utilized and utilization of the exploratory information to portray the advantages of the advancement thought. The commercialization of the imaginative thought is essential to investigate the market v
Sunday, July 5, 2020
Contemporary Sport and Event Marketing (Essay Sample) Content: Name:Course:Tutor:Date:Contemporary Sport and Event MarketingWho does the event attract (ie. Types of people remember subcultures, casual / serious leisure participants, PCM spectators), list key sponsors and is there any reason for the event.The IRB sevens series is a league based tournament that comprises of 15 top teams in sevens rugby. It was established in the 1999-2000 season but has gained popularity in the 2000-2011 season after a sponsorship agreement with HSBC. The series is an initiative of the IRB that aims at making sevens rugby a viable commercial product. In addition, the series reaches people of different culture worldwide with a reported participatory audience on over 500million live fans throughout its global tour. The event also broadcasts to over 32 media channels in 16 different languages. On this regard, it is believed to reach over 332 homes and an approximated 760 million viewers. With 147 countries reached through live broadcasts of the event , one can confidently claim that the event is cross-cultural. However, one should note that the main audience of the event comes from the participating nations. The IRB sevens series attracts individuals who have developed allegiance to sevens rugby to the sports stadiums. Allegiance to the sport is catalysed by the patriotic nature of individuals attending the event. On the other hand, home spectators could be categorised at various levels of the Psychological continuum model. For spectators from 15s rugby playing nations such as New Zealand, Australia, South Africa and England, a majority of them have developed an allegiance to the sport. However, in countries that are not top tier in the tradition 15s rugby, most of the fans are in the awareness stage of the PCM. In these countries, it can be argued that spectators are more likely to advance into the attraction stage based on the performance of the team in the series. Broadcasting channels are the most likely catalyst of thi s advancement in contrast to social groupings and connections. For instance, in Kenya sevens rugby fans have developed allegiance to the national team instilled by national pride. The allegiance is believed to have resulted from the consistent performance of the national sevens team in the series. As a result, the leading communication company in the country, safaricom, initiated a yearly event dubbed the safaricom sevens series. The event has gained popularity among the Kenyan elite class with growing spectator numbers since its year of inception.The IRB sevens series is associated with the global bank HSBC. The bank holds all the naming rights of all tournaments in the series. However, the bank sublets the naming rights of some naming rights of some of the tournaments to other sponsors while still holding the naming rights of the whole series. Though the brand image of the bank is not directly transferable to the rough sport, the bank is able to establish its trademark and promote the services it offers to its customers through the event. 2. Analyse product augmentations or activities from the event itself and inspect media types such as websites, TV advertisements, radio, newspaper, etc toidentify elementsfrom the event and within media types thatlinkto any of 7 Es that would attract spectators, participants or attendees.a. Discusswhythese elements link to 7 Es? (Hint: remember to use elements of 7Es, cognition, affect and psychological involvement to assist in answering these questions).Various elements from the series would help drive the degree of spectatorship of this global event. For instance, in the promotion of the series the IRB team developed a promotional campaign dubbed #bringyourgame. The promotion strategy was meant to capture the attention of spectators towards this event. Through the advert the IRB hopes to create a cognition in the viewers mind that would let them perceive sevens rugby as a fun sport. By watching the advert , the viewers mind is filled with images that make him/her seek involvement in the sport. The advert shows that the fans are the real supporters of the game and the players are just a central part of the all event. In addition, the television commercial shows that the sport is cross-cultural and that it attracts its viewers from various demographic segments. All these strategies by the IRB aim at developing a schema in the spectators minds that would effect to a positive attitude towards the sports. By showing images of star players from the participatory countries, the advert believes that it can help its spectators recall the experiences in previous events. Though a memory recall the advert will be able to create a positive affect of the event. Through the advert, one can argue that spectators in the attachment and allegiance psychographic levels develop a feeling of belonging to the sport. The spectators perceive themselves as belonging to a social group that can match supporters of other sports. Not only does the advert capture the fans emotions, but also shows them the excitement and entertainment levels associated the sport. This is because all the people in the advert are in a jovial mood; one that IRB wants to associate with the sport. The effects of the advert on its viewers affect inspire them to develop an action call. The IRB achieves this by using the #bringyourgame hash tag. Through the Hash tag, rugby fans can communicate to one another and the rest of their world their perceptions and feelings towards the event. Therefore, the advert is a well thought marketing strategy that will not only attract more viewers to the sport but also aid in developing allegiance towards the sports for new followers of the game. b. Discusshow wellyou feel the product augmentations or activities from the event and those used in the media types link to 7Es.Supportyour answer by providing examples of areas of product augmentations or activities from the event or those used in media types that were either done well or poorly. The #bringyourgame was used with great effect in marketing the event. This is because the hash tag acted as a platform for instilling involvement in the event through conversations. Thereby, Rugby fans were able to share their thoughts and experiences from previous events. As a result, the fans developed a feeling anxiety where each of them anticipated the kick-off of the event. Though the hash tag was effective in generating conversations on twitter, IRB should have considered other social media. For instance, involvement in facebook conversations was quite low as compared to twitter. The low level of involvement could be attributed to the events bias towards one social media tool. By involving facebook in their conversations, the IRB could affect the degree of influence of the event through conversations in the social network. Despite the high levels of engagement initiated by twitter conversations, the IRB should also consider developing cognition in the minds of their facebook fans. c. Identify what 7Es are eithermissing or implemented poorlyand need inclusion or improvementin the event. Describe what product augmentations or activities you would improve or include in the event to link to 7Es. Describe how these included or improved product augmentations or activities are going to better link to 7Es. (Hint: remember to use elements of 7Es, cognition, affect and psychological involvement to assist in answering these questions)The series does not develop the element of existence towards their fans. Sevens Rugby fans do not have a lifestyle that they would associate with to socially define their sport. Existence would help achieve high numbers of supporters, as they would have an identity that defines them. The IRB would consider using some of its top players as their opinion leaders. On this regard, rugby fans will develop an altitude towards the opinion leader. These opinion leaders can be expressed through use in commercials and adverts not only for the sport but also for the contributing sponsors. When constantly viewed as public figures, viewers will tend to idolize these leaders by emulating their fashion trends and behaviours. Therefore, the IRB should note that existence is the best measure of its fans allegiance to the sport. Further, the IRB should develop strategies that will help define sevens rugby fans. d. Identify what 7Es are eithermissing or implemented poorlyin advertisements used invarious media typesidentified previously. If you feel some of the 7Es are missing from advertisements in media types and need inclusionidentifywhich of the 7Es needs inclusion and then describehow these 7Es would be included. If you feel some of the 7Es used in media types need improving thenidentifywhich of the 7Es needs improving and thendescribehow you would improve the 7E to make it more effective. (Hint: remember to use elements of 7Es, cognition, affe ct and psychological involvement to assist in answering these questions).The bring your game advert is effective in exploring most of the 7Es with the exception of escapism. The commercial fails to develop a mood where the viewer feels that he/she is in an extraordinary place. Through the commercial, the viewer does not conceptualize the notion that he/she can relieve the tension associated with his/her daily routine. The advert would achieve this element by capturing reactions of persons ...
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Education, for both youth and adults in the United States has been labeled to have extreme importance. The United States is blessed to have the right to a free education and access to resources to help develop further education. This right is not restricted to those with a learning disability or special need. Students found to have a special need (i.e. autism, down syndrome etc.) are given the same opportunity to be educated. By attending schools with children who have these challenges, it is noticeable that specific students are treated differently based on their condition, specifically, autism. These students should be educated based on the extent of their condition, but should not be denied the opportunity to be with their peers. BeingÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦46.) A public classroom is the least restrictive location for a child. If a child can withstand a classroom setting, they should be given the opportunity to experience public school as other children are. This is a law that schools are to abide by. If a child, or their parent(s), wish for their child to participate in classroom activities, the school is required to allow them. The opportunity for autism children to be in classes with their peers not only benefits the child with autism, but also the children around them. Growing up in an elementary school, where a large portion of the disabled children attended, I had the opportunity to observe and interact with autistic children during school hours. If children are introduced to those with autism at an early age, they can be more understanding and compassionate towards children with autism, helping them to have a more positive learning experience. It is much easier to introduce children to each other when they are young and still developing social skills. Autistic children are given the right to attend public classrooms, but the classroom environment isnÃ¢â¬â¢t always for every child. Children with low functioning autism may not be able to handle the stresses of being in a public classroom with other large quantities of children. These children should not be forced to attend classes that they should not feel comfortable. If children attend classesShow MoreRelatedTuition Free Public College Education1677 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAnd Education for All: Tuition-Free Public College Education Everyone has the right to an education and education should be as accessible as possible to fulfill this need. Without an education, people are rendered powerless. Education gives people the power to go wherever and do whatever they want in life. This is especially true for higher education and a college degree is needed now more than ever. In the United States, in order to get ahead in a career or go up the social ladder, one needs aRead MoreHigh School And The Neural And Scholastic Benefits Essay1626 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGerald Ford said, Ã¢â¬Å"Music education opens doors that help children pass from school into the world around them a world of work, culture, intellectual activity, and human involvement. The future of our nation depends on providing our children with a complete education that includes music.Ã¢â¬ Music can do so much for the youth of the nation because it encourages group cooperation, independent study, and a way to relax. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
This idea presents an ideal understanding of the catholic Christianity perception of a wife. It was the understanding of the Catholic Christians and a construction that looked a perfect presentation of how and what a wife should be. Though we cannot dispute the opinions presented by Monica, we can only try to understand it better as according to the condition and circumstances we are living. The confessions were done several years back however they carry an intrinsic meaning and reason why they are still relevant. We can uphold the argument as presented by AugustineÃ¢â¬â¢s mother; however, we have to acculturate the concept into the modern world and social construction by just fitting the idea in the most applicable way. Part 1 AugustineÃ¢â¬â¢s Confessions were based on Catholic Christianity. The Catholic Church itself adopted several philosophies to build their own doctrines. According to Hardon (1987) Augustine had in mind that the idea of happy life, progressing family and the idea of a family with the head. According to him this needed to have a head that other subjects were to be submissive to. In a marriage, the family primarily is made up of two individuals, a wife and a man. The man will traditionally assume the head of the family. During the medieval period, a head had to be respected and followed. The idea of a leader was not transformational but transactional leadership. Hence in the process Augustine thought that the idea of his mother Monica, being subservient toShow MoreRelatedEthical Principles Of Ethics And Corporate Ethics3491 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagesregulating behavior. When someone conforms to the codification, you consider this person to be moral. And yet, the notion of how we ou ght to behave and the reality of how we do behave are varied and real morality behaves in accordance with one s perception of morality. 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ContentsÃ [hide]Ã * 1 Religions and spirituality * 2 Perceptions of Indian culture * 3 Family structure and marriage * 3.1 Arranged Marriage * 4 Greetings * 5 Festivals * 6 Names and language * 7 Animals * 8 Cuisine * 9 Clothing * 10 Languages and literature * 10.1 History * 10Read MoreSources of Ethics20199 Words Ã |Ã 81 PagesPRIMARY SOURCES OF ETHICS: Six primary sources have been identified in the American business area by ethics scholars George and john steiner as under: 1- Religion: The great world religion as we hav seen are: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Judaism Ã¢â¬ ¢ Christianity Ã¢â¬ ¢ Islam The business people in this religion believe that their religion provides them with ethical principles/standards, which can be applied in business. The jewish tradition and the Christian tradition refer to religious ethical teachingRead MoreNotes18856 Words Ã |Ã 76 Pagesand of the Ã frican people. A Therefore, a close scrutiny of the phenomenon of Ã olonialism is necessary c to appreciate the degree to which it influenced not only the economic and political development of Africa but also the African peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of themselves. This chapter focuses on the major European colonial powers in Africa. It will begin by comparing and contrasting in some detail the racial a Ã ttitudes of the British, the French, and the Portuguese, proceeds to Ã iscuss d Read MoreGp Essay Mainpoints24643 Words Ã |Ã 99 Pageslittle liberty for a little security deserves neither and will lose bothÃ¢â¬ . Censorship has been around for as long as humans had the ability to voice their opinion and his fellow man has deemed it appropriate to chastise this opinion. Ã¢â¬ ¢ In PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s ideal state outlined in The Republic, official censors would prohibit mothers and nurses from relating tales deemed bad or evil Ã¢â¬ ¢ Shi Huang Ti: Penchant for burning books Ã¢â¬ ¢ Freedom of speech in ancient Rome was restricted to those in positions of
Question: Discuss about the case study Auditing for Management Expressions of Confidence. Answer: Introduction: 1. Accounting has been an essential element of finance since the ancient times. In the historic times accountants used to be called as bookkeepers who maintained the records of accounting transactions. However, with the constant development in the process of accounting, it has become professionally certified since the 19th century. There has been development in accounting in many different ways that upgrades the nature of accounting, regulatory system, accounting standards and principles. Accounting is a set of records and recognition of financial transactions that helps in analysis of the performance of the organization or individual in an accounting or financial year. Accounting helps in assessment in assessment of profit and loss in a financial year as well as determines the value of assets and liabilities at the end of the accounting year (Mohammadi, 2015). Though the basic concept of accounting has remained same since the ancient times, the methods, principles and standards have been developing for preparation of accounting statements. Preparation and recording of accounting transactions manually have been developed to that in a computerized manner. Several accounting software have been invented and updated over the period to make the process of recording transactions easy and accurate. Apart from that, conventional method developed to modern accounting method so that the desired results are more accurate. For example, computation of depreciation involved historical value of assets under the conventional method of accounting. But in case of modern accounting method, recent value of asset is considered that produces accurate and fair depreciation charges. In order to keep pace with the recent economic trend, accounting principles and standards are being developed to provide transparent and accurate results. Like standard on recording fo reign exchange transaction according to the closing exchange rate on the recording day provides accurate profit and loss on foreign exchange deals (Soh, Leung Leong, 2015). Similarly, auditing has also been developed over the period to serve the users more efficiently and effectively. It is an organized form of scrutiny and verification of accounting records and statements to evaluate the authenticity of the same. Auditing is a concept, which is formed on the basis of accounting and revolves around the concept of examination of books of accounts and statements. Auditing is conducted to examine whether these statements and records depict a true and fair image of an organizations books of accounts. Just like the accounting information, methods and standards that regulates the process of auditing also been developed from time to time. The accounting and auditing boards have specified the limits of capital and turnover of the assessees exceeding which requires mandatory auditing (Ezzamel Xiao, 2015). Auditing is conducted for both companies and individual assessees depending on their value of turnover. In case of companies, different types of auditing are considered as required by the Corporation laws and auditing standards. For example, internal audit, periodical audit, tax audit, bank audit, forensic audit and many more so that the users of the financial statement can get true picture of the companys performance (Westermann, Bedard Earley, 2015). Auditor is required to provide an opinion on the correctness and fairness of the financial statements through qualified, unqualified and adverse report. The process and requirements of stating such opinions and conclusions have been developed over the period so that it depicts a clear picture (Klychova et al., 2015). As provided in the case of Whigarian view of history, it is true that continuous process of any act with a positive belief always generates progressive and developed results. Similarly, in accounting and auditing constant development and advancement has been made to serve the society in a better and fair way. Such advancement in both the components of finance has been made with respect to save the time in preparing the accounting statements without any error. Such advancement also helps to maintain the necessary records of accounting as well as of auditing in more concise manner. As the education system and industries in economy are increasing at high percentage, it is very important to develop the systems of managing the organizations that presents clear, unambiguous, accurate and authenticated information. At the same time recognition and measuring turnover, profits, losses, expected returns and other required information should not be time consuming (Bedford Ziegler, 2016). Therefore, it is important to develop the systems of different areas of finance that helps in analyzing the financial position and other relevant information. Accountants and auditors have to be keen on learning and practice the new, developed and advanced areas and techniques so that they can serve the company and society in the best possible manner (Soh, Leung Leong, 2015). 2. Many nations have institutionalized the regulations and standards that govern the system of auditing under which auditor independence has become difficult. Auditors perform their work through analytical procedures to provide a conclusion for their clients business. However, some conflicts of interests occur among the professionals while performing their several jobs to serve one objective. In this regard, many authors have provided theories on moral seduction as well as strategic issue cycle. While some of the theories like Sarbanes Oxley Act does not reflect the true picture on independence of the professionals or auditors that is a consequence of incorrect understanding for the biasness of the auditors (Berman et al., 2015). In presenting the opinion on auditing for the clients, the auditors have to be unbiased to perform their audit work. This is because auditing is conducted to provide reliability and authenticity of the books of accounts and financial statements of the organization. Hence, auditors need to examine the books of accounts independently to provide a reasonable opinion on the correctness and fairness of the accounting information. In delivering the examination and opinion on the books of accounts of the clients, auditors have to present their performance based on the intuition, analytical process, qualitative and quantitative measures. However, in analyzing the books of accounts, auditors have the reasonable responsibility while the absolute responsibility is that of the management of the organization (Guiral et al., 2015). There are several reasons based on structural features that create conflicts of interest between auditor- client relationships that affect the professional judgment of the auditors. The structural features of the profession of the auditors are appointing and removing the auditors by the organizations management. Another feature of the structural issue is undertaking of jobs with the clients. Under the first feature independence of auditors are affected by their appointment terms and conditions. Organizations have the freedom to appoint auditors of their choice based on their set criteria. Such appointment based on the different conditions affect the independence of performance of the auditors. In providing, the opinion of the auditors on the clients financial report might be biased for reasons like fear of being removed from the auditing position, increased audit fees and such other reasons. Such threats and weaknesses on the part of auditors appointment affect the independence on th eir unbiased performance and increase the conflicts of interest with the clients relationships. Besides, individual auditors or audit firms having brand name are perceived to be more independent in performing their audit work and delivering the critical opinion on the financial statements of the organizations (Rupp et al., 2015). In case of second feature, undertaking of jobs with the clients also affects the independence of audit work because of the relationship between auditors and clients. Sometimes, the relationship between them builds a common identity and creates a favorable behavior among the fellow members of the group. Apart from that, auditors perform multiple works for their clients other than the audit work. This multiple work performance affects the efficiency and concentration on reviewing the accounting records and books of accounts to examine its fairness and transparency. Accepting of non-audit works by the auditors are also an essential reasons for conflicts of interest in the client and auditors relationship because of the fear of losing job by the auditors (Asare, Wright Zimbelman, 2015). Most of the nations legislative systems have allowed the interest conflicts that have become common in the recent years. Several theorists have raised the question on why do auditors or clients accepts such policies that create the conflicts in performance of the work as well as providing conclusion on the opinion. Accounting and auditing are the most important components that provide the opinion on the continuity of the organization. Accounting provides the information on the profitability, incomes, expenses, value of assets and liabilities, investments and other vital financial information (Downar, Ernstberger Koch, 2016). On the other hand, auditing provides the authenticity, true and fairness of the books of accounts and financial statements of the company. Auditing stress upon the correctness of the recognition of accounting transactions according to the International Financial Reporting Standards as well as Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. At the same time, process of auditing also takes place following the International Auditing Standards that provides the auditors a proper direction for the better performance (Whittle, Mueller Carter, 2016). Hence, it is important to focus and perform the auditing without compromising on their independence so the users are able to get a clear and true picture of the organization. Stakeholders of the companies should be provided the correct information about the company that helps them in taking better and fair business decisions to achieve the goals (Hoos, KochetovaÃ Kozloski d'Arcy, 2015). 3. Independence is an essential factor every auditor is required to have while performing the auditing work. Management of companies might have interests in showing the accounting records and financial statements that favors the performance of the companies. However, it is the responsibility of the independent auditors to present the audit report free from falsification, unbiased on the analysis of the organizations financial status. An auditor should follow the code of ethics and audit principles and standards to perform the auditing of a company to provide a clear understanding and fair work performance. In order to perform the auditing independently, it is important to have unbiased behavior for the client company and fellow member. In this context, most of the nations have developed the principles and standards of audit performance to regulate the performance of auditors effectively and efficiently (Gold et al., 2015). However, sometimes auditors biased behavior whether knowingly or unknowingly affects the independence of the auditor. Auditors biased performance on the auditing of account statements and financial statements might present the conclusions and results in favor of the client company. But, the same does affect the reliability and competence on the performance of the fellow audit members. Since a financial statement of an organization presents the financial status and performance of business as a whole, it is very important to provide unbiased and credible opinion on the audit reports. Audit reports provide four types of opinion- unqualified opinion, qualified opinion, adverse opinion and disclaimer of opinion that should be form an unbiased appraisal from the companys auditor (Hatfield Mullis, 2015). Unqualified opinion in the auditors report provides a clean opinion on the financial statement of the client company for which the audit was conducted. This type of report is presented when auditor determines each of the accounting records and statements are free from errors, misrepresentation and fraud (Westermann, Bedard Earley, 2015). Qualified opinion is provided when auditors find the account statements free from misrepresentations but do not harmonize with the International Financial Reporting Standards and Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) (Westermann, Bedard Earley, 2015). Adverse opinion is presented when the financial statements of a company do not conform with the GAAP as well as it reflects gross misrepresentation of the accounting records. This type of opinion provides a negative impact on the companys financial status and its continuity (Gold et al., 2015). Disclaimer of opinion arises when auditor is not able to perform complete audit procedures to provide accurate report due to certain limitations on the scope from the management (Whittle, Mueller Carter, 2016). Since, auditors opinion on the financial statements of the organization helps the stakeholders to form opinion for various purposes, it is important to give unbiased and fair opinion. Ironic rebound effect is portrays unforeseen problems that emerge when auditors strive to overcome certain thoughts, ideas, beliefs, attitudes while performing the audit procedures. Sometimes auditors being biased towards their clients on forming judgments and opinions on the financial statements of the organization. Such biasness does not reflect the true picture of the companys performance and shows the auditors work against the code of ethics and principles of the audit regulations. Auditing is the examination of books of accounts and financial statements of a company to provide a true and fairness review on the performance of the company. Hence, auditors work in this respect is critical and significant as there are various accounting records that need to be examined by using sampling methods. This method of auditing is based on the probability and random selection. Therefore, ironic rebound effect in case of sampling test may provide false results because the selection should be according to value and number of transactions (Aghazadeh Joe, 2015). In order to form a true and fair opinion on the accounting records of the company the auditor is required to follow the necessary principles and standards that regulate the audit procedures. However, it is not possible to check and verify each of the data, evidence, ledger and documents for the purpose of crosscheck, the auditor should be very careful while selecting the data. Such selection of the data provides the overall opinion on the true and fair view of the organizations performance as well as the transparency in maintain the records. Auditors have to overcome with the rebound effect to provide the credible and clear opinion about the company to serve the stakeholders and other users of financial statements in a better way. The auditor should not form any opinion out of biasness or rebound effect on the companys financial statements that is in favor of the client company (Aghazadeh Joe, 2015). Reference List: Aghazadeh, S., Joe, J. R. (2015). How Management's Expressions of Confidence Influence Auditors Skeptical Response to Management's Explanations.Available at SSRN 2623537. Asare, S. K., Wright, A., Zimbelman, M. F. (2015). Challenges Facing Auditors in Detecting Financial Statement Fraud: Insights from Fraud Investigations.Journal of Forensic Investigative Accounting,7(2). Bedford, N. M., Ziegler, R. E. (2016). The contributions of AC Littleton to accounting thought and practice.Memorial Articles for 20th Century American Accounting Leaders,49, 219. Berman, E. M., Bowman, J. S., West, J. P., Van Wart, M. R. (2015).Human resource management in public service: Paradoxes, processes, and problems. Sage Publications. Downar, B., Ernstberger, J., Koch, C. W. (2016). Reviewing a Friend-The Role of Social Ties in Review Work in Auditing.Available at SSRN 2732480. Ezzamel, M., Xiao, J. Z. (2015). The development of accounting regulations for foreign invested firms in China: The role of Chinese characteristics.Accounting, Organizations and Society,44, 60-84. Gold, A., Klynsmit, P., Wallage, P., Wright, A. (2015). The Impact of Auditor Selection Regime and Audit Committee Appointment Power on Investment Decisions.Available at SSRN 2484415. Guiral, A., Rodgers, W., Ruiz, E., Gonzalo-Angulo, J. A. (2015). Can expertise mitigate auditors unintentional biases?.Journal of International Accounting, Auditing and Taxation,24, 105-117. Hatfield, R. C., Mullis, C. (2015). Negotiations between auditors and their clients regarding adjustments to the financial statements.Business Horizons,58(2), 203-208. Hoos, F., KochetovaÃ Kozloski, N., d'Arcy, A. C. (2015). The Importance of the Chief Audit Executive's Communication: Experimental Evidence on Internal Auditors' Judgments in a Two Masters Setting.International Journal of Auditing,19(3), 166-181. Klychova, G. S., Fakhretdinova, E. N., Klychova, A. S., Antonova, N. V. (2015). Development of accounting and financial reporting for small and medium-sized businesses in accordance with international financial reporting standards.Asian Social Science,11(11), 318. Mohammadi, S. (2015). Full development of the theory of accounting and auditing.International Journal of Accounting and Economics Studies,3(1), 7-9. Rupp, D. E., Wright, P. M., Aryee, S., Luo, Y. (2015). Organizational justice, behavioral ethics, and corporate social responsibility: Finally the three shall merge.Management and Organization Review,11(01), 15-24. Soh, D. S., Leung, P., Leong, S. (2015). The development of integrated reporting and the role of the accounting and auditing profession. InSocial Audit Regulation(pp. 33-57). Springer International Publishing. Westermann, K. D., Bedard, J. C., Earley, C. E. (2015). Learning the Craft of Auditing: A Dynamic View of Auditors' OnÃ theÃ Job Learning.Contemporary Accounting Research,32(3), 864-896. Whittle, A., Mueller, F., Carter, C. (2016). The Big Fourin the spotlight: Accountability and professional legitimacy in the UK audit market.Journal of Professions and Organization, jow001.
Tuesday, April 21, 2020
Who would not want to be successful at every stage of life? While each person may have a different definition of success, a general definition states that any person who is able to achieve his goals and shows progress in his life is said to be successful. At college, there are several ways in which students can be successful i.e. success in academics, success in student-run societies, success at job and success at sports. Some students are able to achieve all of these while some cannot even be successful in one task. I made up my mind to excel in academics and one other activity which, according to me, would make me a successful student at college. I used to write my essay carefully, submit assignments well before deadline and developed good relations with instructors and teaching assistants. Furthermore, I served as the president of Media and Arts society of my college for one academic year. Following are some tips that can help you become successful at college in any category you want: Developing contacts with people: Experts and graduated students claim that the most successful students among all are those who are in good terms with as many people from various batches as possible. If you have links with people, you will be able to get several tasks done easily through their reference. Also, you can achieve success at societies through your reference: someone you know will definitely favor you over anyone else. So as soon as college begins, start getting involved in ice breaking activities and interact with people by yourself. As a freshman, very few people will approach you to interact so it is your responsibility to talk to people on any topic. Remember, do not annoy people by trying to interact too much. Have the passion and dedication: Nobody in this world can stop a passionate and dedicated person to succeed in anything he wants. Set a clear goal for yourself so that you can work on it with dedication. Spend a lot of time and efforts keeping in mind that you are not alone running in the race. You will meet a number of competitors who would want to reach the heights you are aiming at so you can only win if you regularly show passion and dedication towards the goal. Give your 100% and make it visible to the higher authorities. Get proficient in time management: A lot of students could not achieve everything they want just because they are not able to manage time properly. Learn how to divide all your tasks properly in the available time because the most successful entrepreneurs and industrialists claim time management to be the most crucial thing in life. So from the very first day of college, try allocating the time appropriately between tasks. You can do this in a better way by writing down a timetable for the entire week. Eventually, you will get proficient in time management and focus well on the goals. Eliminate procrastination and laziness from your life: This point is quite self-explanatory. The key to success in any task is avoiding procrastination and laziness at all times. These habits can lead you to miss out on a lot of opportunities. I used to write my essay and do my assignments as soon as they were assigned to me.